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“MUSIC”一课的探究式教学设计

[日期:2004-04-06] 来源:江苏省通州高级中学   作者:张 淳 [字体: ]

摘  要:本文介绍了“Music”一课的探究式教学过程设计,提炼了音乐知识问卷调查与音乐知识竞赛、音乐的分类介绍、音乐故事、谚语、诗歌等话题;讲述了学生如何根据这些话题和提供的网站进行分组准备、汇报交流和课堂演示;最后作者列出了音乐知识问卷调查题。

关键词:音乐  探究式学习 

Abstract: This paper discusses how to design an exploratory-learning lesson plan for the text “Music”. The author suggests such topics for students to explore as the survey of students’ knowledge about music, quiz on music, introduction to different kinds of music and stories, proverbs and poems about music. He also discusses how the students, with the help of the topics and the suggested websites, prepare in groups and report in class. At the end, he lists the quiz questions.

Key words: music, exploratory-learning

一.简介:

“MUSIC”是SEFC第二册第21单元的课题,文章介绍了民间音乐、非洲音乐、地中海音乐、爵士音乐等。学生都喜欢音乐,不少学生在音乐方面还很有才能,internet网上也有很多关于音乐的网站。老师根据课文内容和音乐题材,提炼出七个话题:音乐知识调查、音乐知识竞赛、古典音乐介绍、流行音乐介绍、校园歌曲介绍、乐器介绍以及音乐故事、谚语、诗歌。让学生根据自己的兴趣自由组合成七个小组,每一个小组就一个关话题精心准备,相互合作积极研讨,在网上搜索信息,然后在课堂上汇报演示。这样,学生通过自主参与学习活动,获得亲身体验,不仅可以发挥他们的才能,提高他们的学习积极性和综合运用所学知识解决实际问题的能力,而且可以使他们学会人际合作,增强了课堂的凝聚力,增进了师生之间、同学之间的友谊。

 

二.教学目标设计:

1.  了解音乐话题,理解课文内容;

2.  掌握有关音乐的语汇,学会用英语组织语言并清晰、准确地表达有关的内容;

3.  培养学生学会通过电脑收集、分析、评价、组织和利用信息解决问题的能力;

4.  培养学生运用适当的现代技术进行有效演示的能力;

5.  培养学生学会小组合作、相互学习和研究探索的能力。

 

三.教学过程设计

根据课文内容及音乐这一主题,老师设计若干个话题;上课之前先让学生自由组成几个小组,每一小组就一个话题作准备;上课时各小组选派一两名同学向全班作汇报并演示有关材料;主持人先了解各组所准备的内容,并据此安排设计课堂汇报演示的流程;最后由老师作总结。具体设计如下:

1.  分组准备

让全班学生自由组合成七个小组,每一小组从老师所设计的七个话题中选择一个并作两方面作精心准备:话题内容介绍及演示。这七个话题分别为:

Topic 1. survey on music

Topic 2. quiz on music

Topic 3. introduction to classical music

Topic 4. introduction to pop music

Topic 5. introduction to school songs

Topic 6. report on music of different countries

Topic 7. stories, proverbs and poems about music

同时,教师提供下列网站供学生准备素材时参考:

http://www.musica.uci.edu/

http://www.indiana.edu/~ssdc/muslinks.htm

http://www.childrensmusicworkshop.com/home.html

http://elwood.pionet.net/~hub7/

在学生准备的过程中,老师提出较为详细的要求。第一小组准备的音乐知识问卷调查要精心设计每一个问题,包括学生对课文内容了解、对音乐的了解和理解以及对音乐基础知识的掌握;第二小组准备的音乐知识竞赛部分可以包括听音乐猜乐器、听音乐猜作者、听音乐猜曲名、根据照片猜音乐家姓名及代表作等等;第三、四、五小组准备的古典音乐、流行音乐、校园歌曲的介绍等话题,要求学生不仅准备文字材料作汇报,而且要准备演示材料,包括录音带、乐器、光碟等,并作唱歌的准备;第六小组准备的不同地区音乐介绍要包括英文歌曲欣赏;第七小组准备的音乐故事、谚语、诗歌等要准备讲义;各组都要准备powerpoint 演示。

 

2.  课堂汇报交流及演示

各小组在精心准备之后,选派代表进行课堂汇报交流,交流由学生主持。主持人在了解各组准备工作的情况下安排交流汇报的先后顺序,并考虑每组汇报乃至每项活动之间的串词。

首先进行音乐知识问卷调查。由第一小组选派一位代表,对其他各组的同学进行口头调查。通过调查一方面可了解同学们对音乐的认识,另一方面也能引发大家对有关问题的思考。

接着进行音乐知识竞赛。由第二小组派一名代表边用powerpoint演示,边就所准备的内容对其他各组的同学进行测试,测试的形式包括选择题、听力题(听音乐猜曲名、乐器或作者)、视图题等等。分值高者获胜。

然后分别由第三、四、五小组选派代表,就他们所准备的古典音乐、流行音乐、校园歌曲的介绍等话题向全班汇报。汇报的同时要演示有关材料,包括音频、视频片段等;第四、第五组还要选派同学演唱流行歌曲和校园歌曲,带乐器的同学进行伴奏。

最后由第六、第七小组的代表汇报。第六组在介绍不同国家的音乐时,可重点介绍英语国家的音乐,并播放英文歌曲供大家欣赏;第七小组准备的音乐故事、谚语、诗歌等,除了powerpoint 演示外,还要准备讲义作为学生的课外读物。

主持人要预先准备好串词,在各组的汇报演示过程中注意根据具体情况灵活应变。可以准备类似以下的串词:

Survey on music: Today we will go into the music world. Before we step into the wonderful world, we have a survey on music. Mr. Xxx has prepared some questions on music and he will ask you all kinds of questions. I hope you will not be defeated.

Quiz on music: What is music? Or what do you know about music? Different people have different opinions towards the same thing. But it seems to me all the students agree that music makes our life more colorful and more interesting. Now let’s have xxx give us a quiz on music.

Story telling: There is always a story behind every song and every piece of music. As we all know, Miss xxx is a good storyteller. Shall we invite her to tell us a story?

Demonstrating: I think it is no good saying without doing. Some of you have brought your musical instruments, why not give performances?

Poems and music: It is true that music has a close relation with poems. I’d like take this chance to introduce Mr xxx to you. He has a very touching voice. He has a good understanding about poems. Mr xxx ,what poem will you read to us ? Ok ,let’s enjoy.

Reading: I can see that some of you have collected reading materials about music or songs. Dear class, what do you think we should do about them?

 

3.  教师总结

在各小组汇报、演示完之后,老师对同学们的表现作总结,并向学生介绍自己对音乐的理解或演示自己在音乐方面的才能。以下是笔者对音乐话题所作的总结:

Everyone likes music. There are many kinds of music and many kinds of musical instruments.  There is popular music, classical music, country music, and folk music in nearly every country. Young people and many of the old people all over the world like popular music. 

Usually when we say the word music, we think of pleasant things. Holidays and vacations have music. But not all music is happy. There also is sad music. There are songs about people who have lost their girlfriends or boyfriends.

There are school songs, drinking songs, national songs, work songs, sea songs and cowboy songs. There are songs that tell stories and there are songs that teach us things.

Many people in China like western music and many people in the west like Chinese music. Chinese music is becoming more and more popular in the world and Chinese musicians have performed in many countries.

Music is like a mirror. It reflects the culture of different nations. I hope music will accompany us all our lives.

 

四.小结

教师在教学之初先提出明确的任务:全班同学根据自己的兴趣爱好自由组合成若干小组,各小组以音乐为题,确定各自的话题,精心准备有关内容,以备在课堂上进行汇报并演示各专题多媒体资料。这种任务型活动极大地激发了学生对音乐的探究兴趣和进行语言实践的热情,学生的反应热烈。

接着,各组学生进行探索式研究。他们先学习、研究课文内容,然后根据个人特长进行分工:或收集资料,或练习乐器演奏,或练习歌曲演唱,或在internet网上查查阅资料,或准备口头汇报材料,或准备powerpoint演示制作。在准备的过程中,学生的主体精神得到了培养和锻炼。他们运用已有的知识和经验收集资料、进行分析和调查研究,设计音乐知识问卷调查和音乐知识竞赛试题,并组织学生进行交流活动。这一系列的活动培养了学生们收集、分析和利用信息并解决实际问题的能力。

合作的意识和能力是现代人应具有的基本素质。分组准备的阶段创设了有利于人际沟通与合作的教育环境,课堂上的汇报演示使学生学会交流信息、分享大家研究的成果。这种合作精神的培养为学生以后的发展奠定了基础。

在汇报课上,学生不但介绍了课文中的有关内容,而且还演奏了不同的中外乐器、欣赏了英语名曲、演唱了校园歌曲、展示了美丽的画面和生动录像。这一切增强了学生对祖国文化的理解和热爱,开拓了学生的国际视野。英语探究式学习使每位同学都能够积极地参与,提高他们的主动性和创造性,从而达到寓知识传授于娱乐活动之中的目的。

探究式学习实施中教师的作用:首先,教师是探究式学习的设计者。教师根据课文内容精心设计学习活动(或任务),学生通过完成这些任务而达到学习的目的。其次,教师是探究式学习的组织者和帮助者。教师向学生提出任务并提供信息,介绍方法和线索,引导学生去研讨、去探究。在这过程中,教师要及时了解学生遇到的困难以及他们的需要,有针对性地进行指导;对学生多鼓励,帮助他们建立自信心,提高学习的积极性。教师成为学生积极探索的组织者和帮助者。再次, 教师是探究式学习的资源开发者和指导者。在探究式学习实施的过程中,教师要开发和利用对探究式学习有价值的各种教育资源,为学生提供良好的进行探究式学习的条件;在不同阶段,要起到不同的指导作用,当好学生的指导者。

 

五.音乐知识问卷调查题(参考):

1.  Are you a good dancer?

2.  Are you a good singer?

3.  Who is your favorite singer or group?

4.  Can you concentrate on other things when you are listening to music?

5.  Can you play a musical instrument?

a)     If so, what do you play?

b)     How long have you been playing?

c)      Are you good at it?

6.  Can you read music?

7.  Do you enjoy music videos?

8.  Do you like all kinds of music?

9.  Do you like American rock bands?

10. Do you like country music?

11. Do you like jazz?

12. Do you like singing karaoke? How often do you sing karaoke?

13. Do you listen to music while doing your homework?

14. Do you sing while taking a bath?

15. Have you ever been to a concert?

a)     Have you ever been to a rock concert?

b)     Have you ever been to an orchestra concert?

16. How does music make you feel?

17. How much time do you spend listening to music?

18. How often do you listen to music? (...to classical music, ... to jazz, ...)

19. If you could play any musical instrument, what would it be?

20. If you were a song, what song would you be and why?

21. What are some special or traditional musical instruments in China?

22. What is one of your favorite songs?

a)     Why do you like it?

b)     When did you first hear it?

c)      Who sings it?

23. What kinds of music do you dislike?

24. Where do you usually listen to music?

25. Which do you prefer, songs in English or songs in Chinese?

 

 

 

参考资料

1.黄亦欣  英语学科中的研究性学习  《中小学英语教学与研究》2002.11

2.《国家英语课程标准(实验稿)》,北师大出版社

3.应俊峰  《研究型课程》, 天津教育出版社,2001

4.Why should music be taught in K-12 schools?

http://askeric.org/cgi-bin/printresponses.cgi/Virtual/Qa/archives/Subjects/Arts/Music/music.html

5.K-12 Resources for Music Educators

http://www.isd77.k12.mn.us/resources/staffpages/shirk/k12.music.html

6.Music Is and the Value of Music in Education

http://elwood.pionet.net/~hub7/

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